考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(九)

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1、考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(九)

the world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. the process sweeps from hyperactive america to europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might. many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying: “won't the wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anti-competitive force?"

there's no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. multinational corporations accounted for less than 20% of international trade in 1982. today the figure is more than 25% and growing rapidly. international affiliates account for a fast-growing segment of production in economies that open up and welcome foreign investment. in argentina, for instance, after the reforms of the early 1990s, multinationals went from 43% to almost 70% of the industrial production of the 200 largest firms. this phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy。

i believe that the most important forces behind the massive m&a wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers' demands. all these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. as productivity grows, the world's wealth increases。

examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re-create the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the u.s., when the standard oil trust was broken up. the mergers of telecom companies, such as worldcom, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. on the contrary, the price of communications is coming down fast. in cars, too, concentration is increasing—witness daimler and chrysler, renault and nissan—but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt。

yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. a few weeks ago, alan greenspan warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. who is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? won't multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about infringements to fair competition? and should one country take upon itself the role of “defending competition" on issues that affect many other nations, as in the u.s. vs. microsoft case?

33. what is the typical trend of businesses today?

[a]to take in more foreign funds

[b]to invest more abroad

[c]to combine and become bigger

[d]to trade with more countries

34. according to the author, one of the driving forces behind m&a wave is _________。

[a]the greater customer demands

[b]a surplus supply for the market

[c]a growing productivity

[d]the increase of the world's wealth

35. from paragraph 4 we can infer that _________。

[a]the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers

[b]worldcom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs

[c]the costs of the globalization process are enormous

[d]the standard oil trust might have threatened competition

36. toward the new business wave, the writer's attitude can be said to be _________。

[a]optimistic

[b]objective

[c]pessimistic

[d]biased

名师解析

33. what is the typical trend of businesses today?  今天的商业典型的发展趋势是什么?

[a]to take in more foreign funds  吸收更多外资

[b]to invest more abroad  进行更多对外投资

[c]to combine and become bigger  合并做强

[d]to trade with more countries  与更多国家贸易

【答案】 c

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 文章第一段中说“世界正在经历一场前所未有的最大的的并购浪潮。这个浪潮从异常活跃的美国开始,横扫欧洲,并以不可比拟的威力影响到正在崛起的国家”,因此可以判断正确答案是[c]。

34. according to the author, one of the driving forces behind m&a wave is _______。

根据本文作者,在合并浪潮背后的一个驱动力是______。

[a]the greater customer demands  更大的消费需求

[b]a surplus supply for the market   对市场的剩余供给

[c]a growing productivity  日益增长的生产率

[d]the increase of the world’s wealth  世界财富的增长

【答案】 a

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 根据“合并浪潮的推动力”可以定位到第三段。在作者看来,“日趋下降的运输与通讯费用,较低的贸易与投资壁垒,以及市场的扩大和为满足市场需求而进行的扩大生产,是推动这股巨大的并购浪潮的最主要的力量,也是推动全球化进程的力量”。将四个选项对比这三个因素,只有[a]包括了根据顾客的需要扩大市场这个因素。

35. from paragraph 4 we can infer that _____。

从第四段中我们可以推断出_____。

[a] the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers

日益增长的集中肯定会损害消费者的利益

[b] worldcom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs

世通就是一个合并利与弊的好例子

[c] the costs of the globalization process are enormous

全球化进程的成本很高

[d] the standard oil trust might have threatened competition

标准石油托拉斯或许已经威胁到竞争

【答案】 d

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 [a]“日益增长的集中肯定会损害消费者的利益”与原文第四段第一句不符合,因为作者说“这股合并浪潮是带来益处还是弊端的实例还很少”,因此很难说肯定会带来损害。[b]提到“世通”,说是一个带来利益和降低成本的好例子。这句说是“价格没有随着合并而提高”,并没有提到价格降低问题,因此,合并虽然没有伤害消费者,也没有给他们带来利益。[c]本段没有涉及。[d]可以从文中“很难想像当今的几个石油公司的合并能够再次造成像100年前美国标准石油托拉斯对竞争形成的威胁”,这说明当年这个石油公司肯定曾经对竞争造成巨大威胁。

36. toward the new business wave, the writer’s attitude can be said to be _____。

作者看待新的商业浪潮的态度可以说是_______。

[a]optimistic 乐观的      [b]objective 客观的

[c]pessimistic  悲观的    [d]biased  歧视的

【答案】 b

【考点】 作者态度题。

【分析】 本题考查考生是否了解作者的态度。文中作者提到了“合并”的益处,但是同时也在第四段中提到“我们必须警惕这样的合并浪潮”。作者是从两个方面来谈论这个问题的,因此我们可以判断作者的态度应该是客观的。

难句解析:

1. this phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy。

【结构分析】 本题的主干是“this phenomenon has created serious concerns”,两个“over”引导介宾短语,是并列的成分,做“concern”的定语。而“of smaller economic firms”与“of national businessmen”都是第一个“role”的定语。

2. i believe that the most important forces behind the massive m&a wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers’ demands。

【结构分析】 本句主句是“i believe ”,“that”引导一个宾语从句,在这个宾语从句中,后面的“that”前面省略了“forces”,这个“that”引导一个定语从句,修饰这个省略的“forces”。冒号后面的部分是“the most important forces”的同位语,其中“markets”后面的“that”引导定语从句修饰“markets”,“capable of meeting customers' demands”是“operations”的定语。

全文翻译:

世界正在经历一场前所未有的最大的的并购浪潮。这个浪潮从异常活跃的美国开始,横扫欧洲,并以不可比拟的威力影响到正在崛起的国家。这些国家的许多人面对这个浪潮,倍感忧虑

2、考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(24)

do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didn’t know for sure? that the evidence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? that the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way? lots of americans bought that nonsense, and over three decades, some 10 million smokers went to early graves。

there are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. the latest was a panel from the national academy of sciences, enlisted by the white house, to tell us that the earth’s atmosphere is definitely warming and that the problem is largely man-made. the clear message is that we should get moving to protest ourselves. the president of the national academy, bruce alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panel’s report: “science never has all the answers。” but science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions。

just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete, that it’s ok to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. this is a dangerous game: by the time 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. with the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now。

fortunately, the white house is starting to pay attention. but it’s obvious that a majority of the president’s advisers still don’t take global warming seriously. instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research—a classic case of “paralysis by analysis。”

to serve as responsible stewards of the planet, we must press forward on deeper atmospheric and oceanic research. but research alone is inadequate. if the administration won’t take the legislative initiative, congress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures. a bill by democratic senator robert byrd of west virginia, which would offer financial incentives for private industry, is a promising start. many see that the country is getting ready to build lots of new power plants to meet our energy needs. if we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound。

26. an argument made by supporters of smoking was that

[a] there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death。

[b] the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insignificant。

[c] people had the freedom to choose their own way of life。

[d] antismoking people were usually talking nonsense。

27. according to bruce alberts, science can serve as

[a] a protector。

[b] a judge。

[c] a critic。

[d] a guide。

28. what does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (last line, paragraph 4)?

[a] endless studies kill action。

[b] careful investigation reveals truth。

[c] prudent planning hinders progress。

[d] extensive research helps decision-making。

29. according to the author, what should the administration do about global warming?

[a] offer aid to build cleaner power plants。

[b] raise public awareness of conservation。

[c] press for further scientific research。

[d] take some legislative measures。

30. the author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because

[a] they both suffered from the government’s negligence。

[b] a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former。

[c] the outcome of the latter aggravates the former。

[d] both of them have turned from bad to worse。

名师解析

26. an argument made by supporters of smoking was that

吸烟的支持者提出的观点是

[a] there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death。

没有科学证据证明吸烟和死亡之间存在相互联系。

[b] the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insignificant。

在过去的几十年中过早死亡的吸烟者人数不多。

[c] people had the freedom to choose their own way of life。

人们有选择自己生活方式的自由。

[d] antismoking people were usually talking nonsense。

反对吸烟的人通常一派胡言。

【答案】 c

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 从第一段可以看出,其实支持吸烟的人的理由不止一个,比如证据不够充分,科学也不能确定,反对吸烟的游说是为了毁掉我们的生活方式等等。[a]选项是出题人故意扩大范围,夸大选项,故意绝对化,原文只是证据不足,而不是没有证据。[b]选项说死亡人数不多,而原文提到的“1,000万”可不是小数字。[d]选项不符合的原因是作者说支持吸烟的人的话是“nonsense”(一派胡言),而不是反对吸烟的人的话。

27. according to bruce alberts, science can serve as

根据布鲁斯·阿尔伯特的观点,科学能充当

[a] a protector. 保护人。 [b] a judge. 评判人、法官。

[c] a critic. 批评者。    [d] a guide. 向导。

【答案】 d

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 文章第二段第四句中有这样的话“科学从来都不能够提供所有的答案,但是科学却能够为我们提供通向未来的最佳引导”。

28. what does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (last line, paragraph 4)?

作者通过“分析性瘫痪症”(第四段最后一行)表达什么意思?

[a] endless studies kill action. 无穷尽的研究遏制了行动。

[b] careful investigation reveals truth. 详细的研究揭示了真理。

[c] prudent planning hinders. 谨慎的计划阻碍了进展。

[d] extensive research helps decision-making. 广泛的研究帮助决策。

【答案】 a

【考点】 上下文暗示题。

【分析】 文章第四段说“白宫已经开始关注此事,但是总统顾问中的许多人仍然没有认真对待地球变暖问题,他们不但没有制定行动计划,反而继续要求进行更多的研究——这是典型的‘分析性麻痹症’”。也就是总统顾问中的许多人通过分析、研究来拖延行动。所以这里应该选择[a]。

29. according to the author, what should the administration do about global warming?

根据本文作者的看法,政府对全球变暖应该做些什么?

[a] offer aid to build cleaner power plants.  提供帮助,建造更加清洁的电厂。

[b] raise public awareness of conservation.  提高公众的环保意识。

[c] press for further scientific research.  敦促更进一步的科学研究。

[d] take some legislative measures.  采取一些立法的措施。

【答案】 d

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 文章的最后一段里面提到“只有研究是不够的,如果政府不采取法律行动,国会应该开始制定保护措施。”[a]选项很具有干扰性,因为原文中出现了“电厂”的概念,这是出题人根据文章最后两句话“很多人看见国家正在做好准备来修建大量的电厂来满足我们的能源需求。但是如果我们要保护我们的大气,这些电厂必须是环保的。”来编写的干扰项,采取环保措施是“国会”(congress)做的。[b]选项说政府应该提高公众的环保意识,这一点文章没有提到。[c]选项是显然不对的,因为上文刚说光有研究是不够的。只有[d]选项采取立法措施是“政府”(administration)应该做的。

30. the author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because

作者把全球变暖和吸烟联系在一起是因为

[a] they both suffered from the government’s negligence。

它们二者都被政府忽视。

[b] a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former。

从后者吸取的教训适用于前者。

[c] the outcome of the latter aggravates the former。

后者的结果恶化了前者。

[d] both of them have turned from bad to worse。

它们二者都已经日益恶化。

【答案】 b

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 本题出题思路是考生能否把握住作者将吸烟和全球变暖问题联系在一起的意图。在第一段,作者提到“几十年前吸烟问题被忽视带来严重后果;而现在这样的忽视又发生在全球变暖问

3、考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(25)

of all the components of a good night’s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. in dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. a century ago, freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise”—the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind’s emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is “off-line。” and one leading authority says that, these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better. “it’s your dream,” says rosalind cartwright, chair of psychology at chicago’s medical center. “if you don’t like it, change it。”

evidence from brain imaging supports this view. the brain is as active during rem (rapid eye movement) sleep—when most vivid dreams occur—as it is when fully awake, says dr. eric nofzinger at the university of pittsburgh. but not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system (the “emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. “we wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those feelings can stay with us all day”, says stanford sleep researcher dr. william dement。

the link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in cartwright’s clinic. most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day. because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don’t always think about the emotional significance of the day’s events—until, it appears, we begin to dream。

and this process need not be left to the unconscious. cartwright believes one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams. as soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. with much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep。

at the end of the day, there’s probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping or “we wake up in a panic,” cartwright says. terrorism, economic uncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people’s anxiety. those suffering from persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist. for the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad feelings. sleep—or rather dream—on it and you’ll feel better in the morning。

31. researchers have come to believe that dreams

[a] can be modified in their courses。

[b] are susceptible to emotional changes。

[c] reflect our innermost desires and fears。

[d] are a random outcome of neural repairs。

32. by referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show

[a] its function in our dreams。

[b] the mechanism of rem sleep。

[c] the relation of dreams to emotions。

[d] its difference from the prefrontal cortex。

33. the negative feelings generated during the day tend to

[a] aggravate in our unconscious mind。

[b] develop into happy dreams。

[c] persist till the time we fall asleep。

[d] show up in dreams early at night。

34. cartwright seems to suggest that

[a] waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dreams。

[b] visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under control。

[c] dreams should be left to their natural progression。

[d] dreams may not entirely belong to the unconscious。

35. what advice might cartwright give to those who sometimes have bad dreams?

[a] lead your life as usual。

[b] seek professional help。

[c] exercise conscious control。

[d] avoid anxiety in the daytime。

名师解析

31. researchers have come to believe that dreams  研究人员已经逐步相信梦

[a] can be modified in their courses.  可以在过程中被修改。

[b] are susceptible to emotional changes.  容易受到情感变化的影响。

[c] reflect our innermost desires and fears.  反应我们内心的欲望与恐惧。

[d] are a random outcome of neural repairs.  是神经修复的随机结果。

【答案】 a

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 题干关键词“researcher”在第一段第四句出现,而在此之前,作者主要介绍了过去有关梦的定义,包括“freud”(弗洛伊德)以及“20世纪70年代神经学家”的说法。第四句开始,文章作者提到了当代的研究者的观点“梦可以调节人的情绪,梦不仅可以被驾驭,还可以有意识地对其进行控制,梦可以改变。”通过这样的一个分析比较归纳,考生应该能够比较容易地得出[a]这个正确答案。选项[b]属于干扰项,但是出题人故意偷梁换柱,将梦影响情绪说成情绪影响梦。选项[c]是“freud”的理论,选项[d]是70年代的理论。

32. by referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show

作者提及边缘系统是为了说明

[a] its function in our dreams.  它在我们梦中的功能。

[b] the mechanism of rem sleep.  快速眼睛运动睡眠的机制。

[c] the relation of dreams to emotions.  梦和情绪的关系。

[d] its difference from the prefrontal cortex..  它和前额皮层的区别。

【答案】 c

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 在第二段第三句中可以找到边缘系统及其含义,然后根据上下文谈论的内容,如上文的“情感大脑”和下文的专家的话,从而判断出答案是选项[c]。其他的三项,文中提到“边缘系统属于情感大脑”,但是并没有说它在梦中的功能,所以选项[a]不正确。文中对快速眼睛运动睡眠只不过给了个简单的词汇解释,并没有对其机制进行任何的讲解,故选项[b]扩大了范围。文中提到“前额皮层”,说它是智力和推理中心,但是没有讲解它和边缘系统的关系,所以选项[d]也属于典型的无中生有型干扰项。

33. the negative feelings generated during the day tend to

白天产生的负面的情绪趋于

[a] aggravate in our unconscious mind.  在潜意识里面加剧。

[b] develop into happy dreams.  演变成快乐的梦。

[c] persist till the time we fall asleep.  一直持续到我们睡着。

[d] show up in dreams early at night.  在夜间早些时候出现在梦里。

【答案】 d

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 做此题时,要求考生能够根据上下文寻找到正确的事实,“负面情绪”这个词组出处在第三段,在此之前作者有一句非常关键的话“大多数人看上去会在夜间早些时候做噩梦,然后发展成为快乐的梦,表明他们正在力图消除白天产生的负面情绪”。可见选项[a]加剧的说法正好相反,而[c]选项显然显得过早。最大的干扰源于选项[b]和选项[d]之间的联系与区别,很多考生选择了[b],但是仔细阅读上文就会发现,负面的情绪会在恶梦里面出现,也就是在夜间早些时候出现,但是我们不能直接说负面的情绪直接演变成快乐的梦,而只能说,负面情绪通过恶梦向美梦转变的方式获得消除。所以说这道题目的干扰项[b]是出题人利用偷换概念的方式来迷惑考生的。

34. cartwright seems to suggest that   卡特怀特似乎认为

[a] waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dreams。

及时苏醒对于摆脱噩梦非常重要。

[b] visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under control。

想象噩梦有利于控制它们。

[c] dreams should be left to their natural progression。

应该让梦自然发展。

[d] dreams may not entirely belong to the unconscious。

做梦可能未必完全处于无意识状态。

【答案】 d

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 通过阅读所有卡特怀特的内容,终于发现可以在第四段第二句卡特怀特所相信的这一部分内容中找到答案的线索。这一段的主旨是“这一过程不一定是无意识的”,紧接着,“卡特怀特相信人能够对屡次出现的噩梦进行有意识的控制,比如:确认你梦中令你不安的事情,想象一下你想如何结束它,以及在下次做同样的梦时醒过来。”作者说这么多

4、考研英语真题:阅读理解试题及名师解析(14)

the supreme court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering。

although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects—a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen—is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect。

doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient。

nancy dubler, director of montefiore medical center, contends that the principle will shield doctors who "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death."

george annas, chair of the health law department at boston university, maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death. "it's like surgery, "he says. "we don't call those deaths homicides because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, although they risked their death. if you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend their suicide."

on another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modem medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying。

just three weeks before the court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide, the national academy of science (nas) released a two-volume report, approaching death: improving care at the end of life. it identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end-of-life care。

the profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a medicare billing code for hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life。

annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meaning medical initiatives translate into better care. “large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering, ”to the extent that it constitutes “systematic patient abuse。” he says medical licensing boards “must make it clear ... that painful deaths are presumptively ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension。”

36. from the first three paragraphs, we learn that

[a]doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients' pain。

[b]it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives。

[c]the supreme court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide。

[d]patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide。

37. which of the following statements its true according to the text?

[a]doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients' death。

[b]modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery。

[c]the court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed。

[d]a doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions。

38. according to the nas's report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is

[a]prolonged medical procedures。

[b]inadequate treatment of pain。

[c]systematic drug abuse。

[d]insufficient hospital care。

39. which of the following best defines the word “aggressive" (line 3, paragraph 7)?

[a]bold.               [b]harmful.                [c]careless.          [d]desperate。

40. george annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they

[a]manage their patients incompetently。

[b]give patients more medicine than needed。

[c]reduce drug dosages for their patients。

[d]prolong the needless suffering of the patients。

名师解析

36. from the first three paragraphs, we learn that    从前三段我们得知

[a] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients’ pain。

医生过去常常增加药物剂量来控制病人的病痛。

[b] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives。

医生帮助病危者结束生命仍然是违法的。

[c] the supreme court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide。

最高法院强烈反对医助自杀。

[d] patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide。

病人没有宪法赋予的自杀权利。

【答案】  b

【考点】  事实细节题。

【分析】  本题针对第一到第三段的所有内容进行了测试,选项[a]的相关信息可以定位到第三段,但是文中说“近几年医生才用这个原则为自己的行为辩护”。文中无法得出“过去常常”的说法。选项[b]可以定位到第二段,文中提到“宪法没有赋予这样的权利”。所以可以说,本答案是正确的。选项[c]可以定位到第二段,但是法院是支持这样的做法的。至于[d],显然是错的。

37. which of the following statements is true according to the text?

根据文章,下面哪一个说法是正确的?

[a] doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients’ death。

如果医生冒病人生命的危险,他们将被判有罪。

[b] modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery。

现代医学已经帮助晚期病人进行无痛康复。

[c] the court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed。

法院判决,医生可以开大剂量的镇疼药。

[d] a doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions。

医生用药是否合法不再取决于他的意图。

【答案】  c

【考点】  事实细节题。

【分析】  由于本题属于事实细节判断题,所以只有对每一个选项都进行辨析。选项[a]可以定位到第五段“annas”的话。话中提到“只要医生不是想杀死病人,那么他们的死亡就不能被称为谋杀”。因此可以判定[a]不正确。[b]说病危者的无痛康复,在文中没有提到康复问题。[c]可以从第二段中找到,高等法院认为只要医生是出于好意,则可以去做。因此可以得出[c]是正确的。[d]错误是因为事实上,医生的意图在对于行为是否合法上面是非常重要的。

38. according to the nas’s report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is

根据国家科学院(nas)的报告,临终护理存在的一个问题是

[a]prolonged medical procedures. 延长了的医疗过程。

[b]inadequate treatment of pain. 对病痛处理不力。

[c]systematic drug abuse. 一贯的药物滥用。

[d]insufficient hospital care.   医院护理不力。

【答案】  b

【考点】  事实细节题。

【分析】  本题可以定位到第七段的第二句话中的“the undertreatment of pain”以及“the aggressive use of‘ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying’”。一个是“对病人的疼痛治疗不力”。另外一个是“强行使用无效的治疗方法延长生命,使得病人的晚期失去尊严”。因此,这里的答案应该是[c]。

39. which of the following best defines the word“aggressive”(line 3, paragraph 7)?

以下哪一个单词最好的解释了单词“aggressive”(第七段第三行)的意思?

[a]bold.  大胆的。      [b]harmful.  有害的。

[c]careless.  粗心的。  [d]desperate.  绝望的。

【答案】  a

【考点】  词义题。

【分析】  这个单词的所在句“it identifies the undertreatment

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